Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Importance Of Leadership, Traits, And The Value Therein

Streamlining Groups: A Discussion Pertaining to Leadership, Traits, and the Value Therein Throughout history there have been numerous leaders who changed the course of the world, whether through conquest or innovation, having the vision and ability to stand at the front of their people and guide them to the future. Yet one must only look at the past to see that for every successful leader there were several who failed at some point in their course, lacking some qualities contained within their more well known peers. Analyzing the most well known leaders of history has led me to believe that the three most important characteristics of leadership are the abilities to delegate tasks, communicate well, and inspire. The phrase â€Å"no man is an island† is one that comes to mind when the actions of failed leaders are observed. All too many times a would-be leader of men has lost their position due to relying solely on their own work and not trusting that of their followers. At some point in a group’s lifespan it is necessary for the leader to acknowledge that the y cannot achieve everything on their own and that they must begin assigning tasks to other members. Having the ability to delegate is important because of one reason: As a group grows there will inevitably be members who are better at certain tasks than the leader is. If the leader cannot give them the tasks that suit their talents it will not only lower the efficiency of their group, but also foster resentment in theShow MoreRelatedEmployee Engagement in Today’s Multi-Generational Workforce Essay4090 Words   |  17 Pageschallenge of motivating and engaging employees across generations with noticeably different work styles, performance goals, and ethnicity into the same work culture. Therefore a careful approach will be conducted throughout the paper to show the importance of understanding why employee engagement is important, what drives employee engagement, how to motivate employees from different generations, the trends use to manage difference in generation, the use o f knowledge management to transfer informationRead MoreLeadership 21st century Essay5218 Words   |  21 Pagesï » ¿Leadership for the Twenty First Century Writing Paper #2 Leadership for the Twenty First Century University of Charleston Graduate School EMBA-601-NG-2012G1 Leadership for the Twenty First Century Introduction As we enter the 21st Century there is a serious question arising concerning our capacity to deal with the challenges. Based on a review and synthesis across a range of literatures coveringRead MoreGes Two-Decade Transformation Case Analysis4601 Words   |  19 Pagesprovide analysis of the leadership challenge that General Electric (GE) is currently facing, and to recommend solutions. The primary problem is determining what kind of candidate is required to replace retiring CEO Jack Welch. This has left GE to question how much does the company want to change policy over the previous era, and where does the company want to be in future? Detailed examination of the impact Jack Welch has had as CEO over the past twenty years reveals a leadership style that is the drivingRead MoreClocky Marketing Analysis4906 Words   |  20 Pagesmarketing mix suitable for the target market and to be successful. Generally speaking, the more a company is consumer/marketing oriented and adopts a differentiation strategy with a customized and relatively high priced product, the higher is the importance of segmentation in its marketing strategy. Broadly speaking, there are two general variables with which one can begin to segment a given consumer market: by descriptive characteristics (geographic, demographic and psychographic) or by behaviouralRead MoreClocky Marketing Analysis4922 Words   |  20 Pagesmarketing mix suitable for the target market and to be successful. Generally speaking, the more a company is consumer/marketing oriented and adopts a differentiation strategy with a customized and relatively high priced product, the higher is the importance of segmentation in its marketing strategy. Broadly speaking, there are two general variables with which one can begin to segment a given consumer market: by descriptive characteristics (geographic, demographic and psychographic) or by behaviouralRead MoreEssay about Profession of Arms11066 Words   |  45 Pagesbuild-down and the exodus of captains and other leaders and talent in the late 1990s was arguably much less so. A recent report suggests that the operating forces of the Army, after nine years of war in the Middle East, exhibit more clearly the traits and character of a profession, comparatively, to force-generating side of the Army. So, as described above as a producing organization, the Army really has a dual nature—that of a government occupation structured as a hierarchical bureaucracyRead MoreSources of Ethics20199 Words   |  81 Pagesapplicability of religious ethics to the business community. 2- Genetic Inheritance: In recent years, social-biologists have lots of evidence and arguments to suggest that the evolutionary forces of natural selection influence the development of the traits such as corporation and alteration that lie at the core of our ethical systems. 3- Philosophical Systems: To the Epicureans, the quality of pleasure to be derived from an act was the essential measure of its goodness. The Stoics, like theRead MoreDoes Cedaw Make World Better Place For Women? Essay7028 Words   |  29 Pages..... 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This book was printed on recycled paper. Management CopyrightRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvii . . xxi . .xxv .xxvii Section 1: Introduction 1—Managing in Today’s Libraries and Information Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Importance of Management. . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Management? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who Are Managers?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Do Managers Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Managerial Functions . . . . . .

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Dna Digestion and Electrophoresis - 728 Words

DNA DIGESTION AND ELECTROPHORESIS In this experiment we will be doing a process called as DNA digestion or also known as restriction digest. A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing. It is sometimes termed DNA fragmentation, scientists Hartl and Jones describe it this way: This enzymatic technique can be used for cleaving DNA molecules at specific sites, ensuring that all DNA fragments that contain a particular sequence have the same size; furthermore, each fragment that contains the desired sequence has the sequence located at exactly the same position within the fragment. The cleavage method makes use of an important class of DNA-cleaving enzymes isolated primarily†¦show more content†¦One of the most important reaction conditions which varies between different restriction enzymes is the salt concentration. Enzyme buffers are specifically formulated to provide the salt concentration for optimal enzyme activity. It is important, therefore, that the correct buffer solution is used for a particular restriction enzyme. [3] For this experiment we also made use of agarose gel electrophoresis, which takes a lot of time. Electrophoresis may be the main technique for molecular separation in todays cell biology laboratory. In spite of the many physical arrangments for the apparatus, and regardless of the medium through which molecules are allowed to migrate, all electrophoretic separations depend upon the charge distribution of the molecules being separated. Electrophoresis can be one dimensional or two dimensional. One dimensional electrophoresis is used for most routine protein and nucleic acid separations. Two dimensional separation of proteins is used for finger printing , and when properly constructed can be extremely accurate in resolving all of the proteins present within a cell. The support medium for electrophoresis can be formed into a gel within a tube or it can be layered into flat sheets. The tubes are used for easy one dimensional separations, while the sheets have a larger surface area and are better for two- dimensional separations. In electrophoresis, proteins are separated on the basis ofShow MoreRelatedIsolation, Restriction Digestion, And Electrophoresis Of Plasmid Dna1827 Words   |  8 PagesIsolation, restriction digestion, and gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA Prathyusha Gudapati, BIOL 304, spring 2015. Abstract The purpose of the experiment was to isolate plasmid DNA, followed by restriction digestion using restriction endonucleases and then visualizing the digested fragments after subjecting to gel electrophoresis. Plasmid DNA (pSP72 DNA) was isolated from Escherichia coli KAM32 (E.coli) cultures using the QIA prep miniprep kit and then subjected to restriction digestion by EcoRI and HindIIIRead MoreMethods Of Restriction Mapping Site Essay730 Words   |  3 Pages Discussion In this experiment two methods of restriction mapping site were used i.e. double digestion method and the comparison of fragment pattern to a known sequence. In the double digestion method, the fragments produced by the enzyme Hind III andXhoI independently and concurrently were compared so that it can produce an estimation of relative postion of cleavage site The drawback of restriction mapping is that the technique cannot be directly used for eukaroyotes because of difficulties associatedRead MoreRestriction Enzyme, Alkaline Phosphatase Digestion And Gel Electrophoresis1195 Words   |  5 PagesMMR Report 1.3 Restriction Enzyme, Alkaline phosphatase Digestion †¨and Gel Electrophoresis By Naga Srilekha Somu Chemistry - 429 Spring 2016 Western Illinois University Materials and Equipment: Pure plasmid pET28a, amplified 2-alcohol dehydrogenase gene (a PCR product), 10x bovine serum albumin, 10x neutralization buffer, EcoRI, nuclease free water, pET28a plasmid digested with EcoRI, calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase, agarose gel (1% agarose + 0.3ÃŽ ¼L ethidium bromide), 1x TAE bufferRead MoreA Research Study On Scar Markers1635 Words   |  7 PagesSCAR markers are PCR based primers that represent genomic DNA fragments at genetically defined loci, that are identified by PCR amplification using sequence specific oligonuceotide primers (Paran and Michelmore, 1993; Me Dermott et al., 1994). Inception of SCARs involves cloning the amplified products of arbitrary marker techniques and then sequencing the 2 ends of the cloned products. The sequence s therefore used to design specific primer pairs of 15-30 bp which will amplify single major bandsRead MoreEssay on Using PCR and Gel Electrophoresis to Determine Genotype583 Words   |  3 PagesUsing PCR and Gel Electrophoresi s to Determine Genotype In certain situations, it is necessary to identify DNA retreived from a sample. When there is a small sample in need of identification, Polymerase Chain Reactions are used to multiply the DNA in the sample in to many identical samples. The DNA retrieved from the reaction can then be imported into an aparatus using gel electrophoresis to compare the sample of DNA to other samples. In our experiment we learned the how to replicate tinyRead MoreOptimization of Asymmetric PCR for Generation of a Single Stranded DNA Library690 Words   |  3 PagesAptamers are short DNA or RNA oligonucleotides with high, specific affinity to a special target. The name was originated from aptus that means to fit and meros that shows the polymer identity of oligonucleotides (1, 2). Aptamer characteristics provide prominent potential applications in multiple fields.These nucleic acid ligands are completely generated through in vitro process for a wide range of targets from small molecules and ions to large proteins and cells and even whole organism or tissueRead More1.3.1 response Essay624 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Activity 1.3.1: Student Response Sheet PART A- Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes are a tool that allows us to pinpoint human identity down to single differences in our DNA. Work through the following simulation so you can see these molecular scissors in action. Find out more about restriction enzymes by viewing the animation and reading the article listed below. DolanDNALearningCenter: Restriction Enzymes Access ExcellenceRead MorePlant Viruses : A Large, Unique Family Of Plants Viruses1458 Words   |  6 Pagesworld. [1, 2] Geminiviruses consist of four genera, Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Begomovirus, and Topocuvirus based on host ranges, vector specificities, and genome organizations. Characteristics of geminiviruses include their circular, single-stranded DNA genome and geminate-shaped virus particles. These viruses-- exhibit both prokaryotic and eukaryotic features-- replicate in the nuclei of the host cell and depend on host machineries for transcription [1]. The majority of the Old World begomovirusesRead MorePcr Rflp Report : Pcr1166 Words   |  5 PagesPCR-RFLP Report PCR What is it: The Polymerase Chain Reaction is a method that uses the capability of DNA polymerase to synthesize to new DNA strands which are matching to the template strand. A primer needs to be added to the first nucleotide due to the fact that DNA polymerase only can add a nucleotide only onto a 3 -OH group that already exists. Because of this condition, we are able to define a chosen region of template sequence which we can then generate millions to billions of copies. ThisRead MoreSite Directed Mutagenesis ( Sdm ) Technique942 Words   |  4 PagesSite-directed mutagenesis (SDM) technique is commonly used to induce desired change in DNA plasmid sequence by mutation, insertion or deletion with oligonucleotide primers (1). This SDM usually cooperate with ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) as to amplify the concentration of mutated template (2). PCR, a temperature-based cycle reaction, is completed with three initial steps including denaturing the DNA template, anneal the mutated oligonucleotide primers and elongating the mutated primer with ploymerase

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Document Analysis of John Brown’s Address to the Virginia Court Free Essays

John Brown’s address to the Virginia Court Origin: The address given by John Brown to the Virginia court was his final words before execution on charges of treason. The charges were given because of a raid that he directed with the intent to take federal weapons which is an act of treason. On October 16th-18th, 1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown led a group of white and black men, including two of his sons, on Harpers Ferry, Virginia. We will write a custom essay sample on Document Analysis of John Brown’s Address to the Virginia Court or any similar topic only for you Order Now Brown’s goal was to seize the federal arsenal, arm the local slaves, and fight a way into the North as described in this primary source in court. This raid was not surprising because of his abolitionist background and insanity as described by the Robert E. Lee who led the Union Army that suppressed the revolt. The group held up in a fire department and was attacked by Lee’s soldiers. The failed attempt resulted in Brown’s capture, trial, and execution on December 2nd. This episode of slave resistance was the last major rebellion contributing to the secession of the South and, eventually, the Civil War. Purpose: John Brown had a a few purpose for delivering this address. Obviously, it was given in response to charges accumulated from the raid, and the address also makes several points explaining his defense. Brown stated that he did not intend to fire a single gun but wanted simply to take slaves from plantations and lead them to northern states or Canada. Brown also stated that he did not induce the others involved in the raid to join him which lessened his crime in his mind. To the charges he addressed, â€Å"I never did intend murder, or treason, or the destruction of property, or to excite or incite slaves to rebellion, or to make insurrection. Though he denied the charges, one can infer that Brown really did want a slave uprising to occur in the South due to his strong abolitionist morals and beliefs. If the raid were to be successful, Brown would not stop with those slaves, but rather continue his forced manumission of the South. Brown’s impression of the trial was one of satisfaction, but he argued that â€Å"it is unjust that I should suffer such a penalty [of death]. † He made this argument because his intent was not to start this uprising but, instead, to be an act of defiance that he knew would indirectly cause a mass insurrection in the South. Value: John Brown’s address is not a historical landmark and was a less significant historical document that had minimal aftermath; however, it provides a specific example of responses in court giving insight into how acts of slave resistance are dealt with legally. Brown gives this document a unique texture because of his eloquence in court compared with his savagery in the raid. Overall, he is given the status of a martyr with his words: â€Å"I submit [to death]: so let it be done! † Brown reveals a very different side of his personality in which he is a dignified martyr. He predicts that slavery will never end peacefully in the country whose â€Å"rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments†. Historians can use this document today to show people strong in their beliefs who act upon them, and although some failed in their efforts, their cause was strengthened. Limitations: The address made by John Brown contains several limitations that affect its credit as a historical source. A significant limiting factor is that there is only one opinion to explain the raid. Brown had a biased opinion mainly because of his childhood having been greatly influenced with abolitionist morals and beliefs. One would think that Brown’s address would be biased in spite of his numerous accusations, but he speaks as if he had nothing to lose. The aiding and abetting criminals in the raid would not have delivered a speech as dignified and passionate as Brown’s but would obviously be similar in their renditions of the event. To fully understand Brown’s raid, historians would need to consult Robert E. Lee’s notes. After viewing both sides of the story, a historian can either choose a side or make an inference that incorporates both. How to cite Document Analysis of John Brown’s Address to the Virginia Court, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Every man is like all other men free essay sample

Plato stated more than 2000 years ago: â€Å"No two persons are born exactly alike; but each differs from the other in natural endowments, one being suited for one occupation and the other for another. † Individual differences can be studied or examined at three levels of focus captured by the well known quote: â€Å"Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man. † (H. A. Murray C. Kluckhohn, 1953). A man is like all other men because some features of his personality are common to the human race. We will write a custom essay sample on Every man is like all other men or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page That is, each man possesses certain features that are present in every other man in the human race. These include physical, emotional and mental features. Every man goes through birth and eventually learns how to move about and adapt to his environment. Every man grows in height, matures and dies. He does all of these things including others as a member of the human race. Animals also go through similar stages. However, there are some traits unique to man only. It is only human beings that are able to have an erect posture, hands with ten fingers that hold things and two feet that can walk, a nervous system enabling him to speak and learn. All men are social beings and adapt to the cultures of their societies. As social animals, men are conformed to a system of interdependence with others in their society. As cultural animals also, they must adapt to tradition and its expectations. All humans are birthed into an impersonal world which can present several threats to survival. Human adjustment to the outer environment depends on social as well as cultural life. In certain particular characteristics of personalities, most men are like some other men. Similarities in personality traits can be found among members of the same societies or members of the same socio-cultural unit. For example, a hundred Gambians will display certain mannerisms and characteristics that a hundred Ghanaians would not display. Scholars all over the world have something in common, so do athletes and so do those who were born into poverty or wealth. Also, there might be certain traits in peoples’ personalities of one society that might remind us of personality traits of people in other societies. Finally, there is the fact that man in many regards is like no other man. Anthony Giddens said, â€Å"Human beings are knowledgeable agents. † This means that humans can perceive things, make choices and are aware of the consequences of their choices. Every man has different ways of perceiving and making choices. Man’s perception and choices are in part influenced by their guardians; that is, how they were brought up and what experiences they have been through. Because men go through various experiences in life- all of which have some sort of uniqueness to them- the perception and choices of one man will be completely different from the next. In conclusion, quoting from the famous book on personality written by Henry A. Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn, â€Å"The personality of an individual is the product of inherited dispositions and environmental experiences. These experiences occur within the field of his physical, biological, and social environment, all of which are modified by the cultures of his group. Similarities of life experience and heredity will tend to produce similar personality characteristics in different individuals, whether in the same society or in different societies. †

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Art History Study Notes Essay Example

Art History Study Notes Essay Art Hist. Review Ancient Greek Art and Arch. (600 BCE-30 BCE) The Early Classical Period 480-450 BCE 5. 23 KRITIOS BOY Acropolis, Athens 480 BCE -Marble -He is self confident and serious looking -He is a sculpture in the round -The artist is believed to be KRITIOS -The statue has an S-curve to him and is in the contrapposto pose, which is when artists use tension and relaxation around the central axis of the body to increase to muscular tension and enhance the musculature of a body. It is shown here because his weight is all on the left foot, causing his hip to jut out. His right knee is slightly bent and he has a slight drop in his shoulders. -The artist also made a point to have his head slightly turned to hint that the viewer should take in the entirety of the piece. High Classical Period 450-400 BCE 5. 29 ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 447-432 BCE -In the High classical period which only lasted a half-century and set the standards for art and architecture. There was also turmoil between the Spartans and the Athenians in this time period which was referred to as the Peloponnesian War. -â€Å"Acro† means high and â€Å"polis† means city. The Acropolis of Athens was once considered a fortress and sanctuary but was later turned into a religious and ceremonial centre for Athena the cities patron and protector. -It was destroyed by Persian troops in 480 BCE and was going to be left and a memorial site of ruins but Perikles convinced them to rebuild it. 5. 31 Parthenon, Acropolis Athens 447-432 BCE -KALLIKRATES AND IKTINOS -Pantelic Marble -Has the pe diment, frieze, triglyph, metope, architrive, abacus, mechinus and necking -Athens, Corinth and Sparta. Depicted gods and goddesses who they believed were immortal and supernatural -Sanctuaries for gods and goddesses in form of outdoor altersreplaced by temples integrated into natural site -temples decorated with ceramic sculptures -mathematical proportions which artists use to convey structure and order 4:9 ratio 42+1 -human values of truth virtue and harmony -High classical period -plain capital -temple dedicated to Athena -stylobate floor columns rest on and stereobate foundation itself -post and lintel system -entasis columns slightly swell in the middle -Doric order plain capitals peace, prosperity and power through the building projects -transport wood, gold, marble and ivory -sculptures celebrate the Greek victory over Persians 5. 32 EAST PEDIMENT OF THE PARTHENON 447-432 BCE (ATHENS) High Classical period 450-400 BCE -Sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Part henon -illustrated the birth of Athena, fully grown and clad in armor, from the brow of her father Zeus. -The statues from the west pediment are the best preserved of the two. -besides Zeus and the newborn Athena are three goddesses followed by a single reclining male figure who could be Diomysos or Herakles. In the left corner was Helios (sun god) in his horse-drawn chariot rising from the sea and to the right the moon god Selene descends in her chariot to the sea. -The running female figure in the center is Iris the messenger of the gods. P. G. 134 SPEAR BEARER (DORYPHOROS) 450-440 BCE (NAPLES) -POLYKLEITOS -Marble -developed canon of proportions system of measurement used to determine the proportions of the body -contropposto pose is balance and counterbalance one foot bearing weight and one not bearing the weight. We will write a custom essay sample on Art History Study Notes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Art History Study Notes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Art History Study Notes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In this case his right foot is the one bearing all the weight of his body while the left foot is relaxed. -It is said to be the hero Achilles -Theorists believed that the basic unit was the length of the figures index finger or the width of the figures hand across the knuckles; others think it was the height of the head from chin to hairline. -S-curve -High classical period -spear bearer, idealized, exaggerated The Late Classical Period 400-323 BCE 5. 46 MAN SCRAPING HIMSELF (APOXYOMENOS) 350-325 (VATICAN) -LYSIPPOS -Marble sculpture -Done in the late classical period male nude athlete, which is a typical Classical subject -This is a sculpture in the round that depicts a young athlete after his workout removing dirt and oil from his body with a tool called a strigil. -Has a different canon of proportions than The Spear Bearer. -His head is smaller in proportion to The Spear Bearer and his legs are spread further apart to counterbalance his outstretched arms. -There is a pronounced S- curve to his posture. -The arms break free into the surrounding space inviting the viewer to take in the entirety of the piece. The Early Roman Empire 27 BCE-96 CE P. G. 76-177 ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE 13-9 BCE -Ancient roman art -Dedicated to Augustus’ triumphant return from the capital after three years of establishing Roman rule in Gaul and Hispania. -It was aligned with a giant sundial. -it contained propoganda of portraiture and allegory, religion and polotics and the private and the public. -on the inside of the alter there are foliate garlands suspended in swags from ox skulls, which symbolize sacrificial offering at the alter during annual commemorations and garlands signify the continuing peace and prosperity brought to the Roman world by Augustae. Augustae’s Imperial Family is depicted on the south side of the Ara Pacis and represent his extended family, possibly Marcus Agrippa (far left) who might have been his successor. The child pulling at Agrippa’s robe is possibly Agrippa’s son Gaius Caesar. The women next to Agrippa on the right may be Augustus’ wife, Livia who grasps her younger sons hand (Germanicus) who is in beside Tiberius (the next emporer). Behind Tiberius is Antonia, Augusts’ niece who looks at her husband Drusus (Livia’s younger son). -Pax Romana Roman Peace -pointifex maximushigh priest 6. 34 6. 5 FLAVION AMPITHEATER (COLOSSEUM) 70-80 CE (ROME) -Tuscan bottom -Ionic middle -Corinthian on top -It was called the colosseum because the statue of Nero called the colossus stood next to it. -seating was by rank lower the rank higher you sat -Early Roman Empire -Flavion dynasty -begun under Vespasian finished under Titus -soldiers would fight animals -tiered seating with good sight lines from where you sit. -Top level covered by and onning -top story in referred to as attic -cartouche shield shaped ornaments -look at Roman arches High Imperial Art of Trajan and Hadrian 6. 38 MODEL OF IMPERIAL ROME 324 CE Colosseum, Temple of Venus and Rome, Arch of Titus, Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Rorum of Vespasian, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Julius Ceasar, Rostrum, Forum of Trajan, Basilica Ulpia, Colmn of Trajan, Patheon. 6. 45 THE PANTHEON 118-128 CE (ROME) -It was built for the â€Å"all the gods† -built by Marcus Agrippa son in law of Augustus -it has a giant rotunda surmounted by a huge, bowl-shaped dome. -the oculus that allows light into the rotunda building shows a pattern-like formation when looking up at the coffers in the dome’s ceiling. -Corinthian columns -optimus is a skylight or opening in dome corticoid of columns -Exadraie niche for the statues rectilinear and rounded arches -made out of brick and concrete (powdered lime, small rocks, pebbles, rubble) -produced during high imperial period -Hadrian oversaw building of this he admired Greek art and arch. -podium or steps in front of building that lead to porch -Rotunda and dome -Pantheon means all the gods Early Christian Art P. G. 228 OLD ST. PETER’S BASILICA 320-327 (ROME) -It is a longitudinal-plan churches are characterized by a forecourt, the atrium, leading to an entrance porch, the narthex, which spans one of the building’s short ends. The nave can be lit by windows along its upper level just under the clerestories, called a clerestory above the aisles roof. -At the opposite end of the nave from the narthex is a semicircular projection, the apse, which functions as the building’s focal point where the alter, raised on a platform. -plan is known as the Latin cross CHURCH OF SANTA COSTANZA 350 (ROME) -This church is a central-plan church, which were first used by the Christians. -Central planned churches have an atrium, a narthex, and an apse. It has a central more vertical axis from the center up through the dome, which may have functioned as a symbolic â€Å"vault of heaven†. 7. 15 ORATORY OF GALLA PLACIDIA 425-426 (RAVENNA) -It is one of the earlie st surviving Christian structures in Ravenna is an oratory, which is a small chapel). -Its named after Honorius’ half-sister Galla Placidia. -Galla Placidia was the daughter of Western Roman Emperor, the wife of a Gothic King and the mother of Emperor Valentinian. -This small building is cruciform, which means cross-shaped. -Each arm is covered with a Barrel vault and a pendentive dome covers the square base at its center. it is designed to make you feel as though you are walking from the real world to the supernatural world as you walk into the interior of the church. -the upper walls are filled with standing apostles, gesturing like orators. Eternal life in heaven is symbolized by doves flanking a small fountain between the apostles. -The Marter caries a cross over his shoulder like a trophy gesturing towards the fire-engulfed grill he was roasted on martyrdom. The Gospels are to the left signifying the faith for which he gave his life. 7. 16 THE GOOD SHEPARD 425-426 (RAVEN NA) Jesus is an adult emperor wearing purple and gold royal robes. He wears a golden halo and carries a golden staff that ends in a cross to represent his imperial majesty. -Christianity was the official state of religion for the 45 years this is why the artist chose to depict Jesus in the mosaic. Early Byzantine Art 7. 17 CHURCH OF HAGIA SOPHIA 532-537 (ISTANBUL) -ANTHEMIUS OF TRALLES AND ISIDORUS OF MILETUS -means Holy Wisdom -It was rebuilt after a devastating revolt that killed 30,000 people set fire to the old church burning it to the ground. -Anthemius and Miletus rebuilt the church in just 5 years longitudinal and central architectural planning -flanking conches-semi domes-extend the extend central space into longitudinal nave with the narthex on one end and the half dome of the sanctuary apse on the other. The core called the naos is flanked by side isles and galleries overlooking the naos. 7. 20 CHURCH OF SAN VITALE 520 (RAVENNA) -Ecclesius bishop of Ravenna commissioned tw o new churched one for the port and one the city. -A martyrium is a church built over a grave was dedicated to 4th-century Roman martyr St. Vitalis in the 520’s -central domed octogon with circular rooms flanking the apse. the church and palace are joined by a separate oval narthex and access to second floor gallery. -It has a double set of doors leading into the church. 7. 21-7. 22 CHRIST ENTHRONED, FLANKED BY ANGELS, ST. VITALIS AND BISHOP ECCLESIUS 547 ( RAVEENA) -Early Byzantine Art -Christ is flanked by St. Vitalis and Bishop Ecclesius. -Christ appears dressed in imperial purple and enthroned on an orb of paradise, which is evident because of the 4 rivers that flow beneath him. -two winged angels flank him, like imperial bodyguards or attendants. -Christ holds a scroll with 7 seals at his Second Coming at the end of time. he offers a crown to martyrdom (far left) labeled by St. Vitalis. -Bishop Eucclesius holds a model of the church offering it to Christ. 7. 23 EMPEROR J USTINIAN AND HIS ATTENDANTS, NORTH WALL OF APSE 547 (RAVENNA) -Early Byzantine Art -Justinian carries a large golden paten that will be used to hold the Eucharitic Host and stands beside Maximianus, who holds a gold jewel encrusted cross. The priests to the right hold carry the Gospels, in a golden jeweled book that symbolizes the coming of Word, and a censer with burning incense to purify. 7. 24 EMPRESS THEODORA AND HER ATTENDANTS, SOUTH WALL OF THE APSE 547 (RAVENNA) -Early Byzantine Art Theodora wears a golden halo and elaborate crown while she stands under a fluted shell canopy, she carries a jeweled golden chalice. -The rulers present these gifts as offerings to Christ -At the bottom of Theodora’s cloak the three Magi who brought gifts to Jesus are depicted. -Revolves around themes of offering -They stand beside a fountain and the open doorway and curtain are space-creating devices. 7. 35 CHRIST PANTOKRATOR AT CREST OF CENTRAL DOME, WITH SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF CHRIST IN THE PENDENIVES, (GREECE) LATE 11TH CENTURY -Early Byzantine Art The image of the Pantokrator is at the centre of the dome like a divine surveyor. -Christ blesses the segregation with one hand and clutches a massive book in the other. -In the corners piers are four signal life episodes: Annunciation, Nativity, Baptism and Transfiguration. 14. 13 14. 14 PALACE CHAPEL OF CHARLEMAGNE 792-805 (GERMANY) -The Carolingian Empire Was Charlemagne’s private place of worship. -central octagonal plan with a monumental western entrance block. -It used westwork, which is a structure combined with a ground-floor narthex and an upper level throne room that opened onto the chapel interior. It also opened outside into a large walled forecourt. The core of the chapel is surrounded by and ambulatory and a gallery on the second floor which rises to a clerestory under the dome and above the gallery. -There are Corinthian columns on the gallery level. -This chapel was clearly inspired by Byzantin e Architecture with the mosaics and patterned multi-colored stone. 14. 16 SAINT GALL PLAN 817 (SWITZERLAND) -The Carolingian Empire -At the center of the Saint Gall Plan is the cloister, which is an enclosed courtyard which opens all the buildings that are most central to the lives of the monks. the large basilican church to the north of the cloister is where monks would gather for communal prayer throughout the day and night. -on the north side of the church there were public buildings. -the monks living quarters were off to the southern and eastern sides of the cloister with the dormitory, refectory and work rooms. the kitchen, brewery and bakery were attached to the refectory and a huge cellar was on the west side. -Along the East edge there is a hospital, cemetery, and an educational center. 14. 24 DOORS OF BISHOP BERWARD 1015 (GERMANY) -Bronze doors are more than 16 feet tall. Ottonian Europe -cast in the lost wax process -the left side depicted scenes from the Hebrew bible an d the right was scenes from the new testament. -It depicts life in paradise, the fall, life in the new world and Eve’s children on the left and Promise of Return to Paradise, The passion, Infancy of Jesus and Mary’s child on the right. -all depicted in low relief Romanesque Art : in the Roman manner P. G. 458 THE PILGRIMAGE ROUTES TO SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA -In the 11th and 12th centuries religious pilgrimage became very popular in Western Europe. 15. 7-8 THE ABBEY AT CLUNY 1088-1130 (FRANCE) in the 2nd half of the 11th century there were 200 monks in residence. -The cloister is at the center of the monastic community joining the church with domestic buildings and workshops. -it had elaborately carved capitals and relief sculptures on the piers. -it may have been to direct and inspire the monks thoughts and prayers. -Cluniac monks observed the traditional 8 hours of the Divine Office spread over the day and night. -The church was a basilica with five aisles, double tran sept with chapels and an ambulatory and radiating chapels around the alter. The nave had a three part elevation -it had pointed arches with Classical ornaments. -there were clerestory windows in each bay and a pointed barrel vault with transverse arches. 15. 9 -10 NAVE, ABBEY CHURCH OF NOTRE-DAME, FONTENAY 1139-1147 founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux no interior decoration because he believed it would be a distraction to the monks Cistercians led a very austere simple life Romanesque means in the Rome manner Feudalism lords owned lands loaned to Basils and bellow Basils were Peasants Building has simplicity, austerity Windows symbolize the holy trinity- father, son and the holy ghost Cloister is where the monks gathered Simple geometric plan with a long bay-divided nave, rectangular chapels off the square ended transept arms and a shallow choir. There are pointed barrel vaults over the nave and pointed arches in the nave arcade and side isle bays. 15. 22 SOUTH PORTAL AND P ORCH, SHOWING CHRIST IN MAJESTY, PRIORY CHURCH OF SAINT-PIERRE, MOISSAC 1115 (FRANCE) -Christ in Majesty dominates the tympanum and is a visual of the Second Coming in chapters 4 and 5 of the Revelation. He is enclosed by a mandorla and a halo rings his head -the four winged creatures symbolize the evangelists, Matthew the man, Mark the lion, Luke the ox and John the eagle. -rippling bands may represent waves in the â€Å"sea of class like crystal† THE LAST JUDGMENT TYMPANUM AT AUTUN 1120- 1130 (FRANCE) -GISLEBERTUS -Inscription in Latin on Christ -Mary is enthroned as Queen of heaven and St. Peter bellow is shown with the large keys slung over his shoulder as heavenly gatekeeper. -angel pushes the saved into open archway and into heaven another figure stands beside the angel impatiently waiting to be hoisted up as well. cross and scallop shell identify two bottom figures as former pilgrims and will be a factor in their favor at the last judgment. -hell is represented as a Ba silica with the devil emerging capturing sinners for eternal torment -he uses a sharp hook to capture luxuria who is the personification for lust. Gothic Art of the 12th and 13th Centuries 16. 6 WEST FACADE, CHARTERS CATHEDRAL 1134-1260 (FRANCE) -dedicated to the virgin Mary its main treasure is a piece of cloth said to have been worn by the Virgin Mary when she gave birth to Jesus. -It was a gift from Byzantine Empress Irene to Charlemagne surrounding the three doors is the Royal Portal used for important ceremonial entrances -the middle tympanum Christ enthroned in majesty returns at the end of time surrounded by 4 evangelists. The apostles in 4 groups of 3 fill the litel while 24 elders of the Apocalypse line the archivolts. -The right portal is dedicated to the Incarnation and shows Mary in the early life of Christ -in the left portal is the Ascension where Jesus floats up in a cloud supported by angels. -On the top of the three portals Jesus’ life on earth is depicted in a series of narrative scenes. Kings, Queens and prophets from the Hebrew bible are what give the Royal Portal its name. 16. 10-11 NAVE PLAN,CHARTERS CATHEDRAL 1194 (FRANCE) -Romanesque pilgrimage plan -became typical Gothic structure -it used pointed arches, ribbed groin vaults and flying buttresses. -upper level was now a triform rather than a gallery -the large clerestory windows are formed with lancets that have small circular rose windows done by plate tracery-holes cut in wall replaced with stained glass 16. 12 THE GOOD SAMARITAN WINDOW 1200-1210 (CHARTERS CATHEDRAL) -On sin and salvation and is Gothic narrative art -Jesus told his followers to teach a moral truth it is a parody for Jesus’ redemption for humanity’s sins -Adam and Eve’s fall introduce sin into the world and Christ rescues humanity from sin -figures characterize gothic figures because of their dancelike postures 16. 13 ROSE WINDOW AND LANCETS (CHARTERS CATHEDRAL FRANCE) 1230-1235 -quatrefoi ls are four lobed designs within the rose itself The North Rose and its five lancet windows were a gift from Queen Blanche of Castille in 1230. -The rose window depicts the Glorification of the Virgin: Virgin and Child surrounded by doves and angels, then Old Testament kings and Old Testament prophets. Lancets, from left to right: Melchizadek and King Saul; King David and King Jeroboam; St Anne and the infant Mary with the arms of the Royal House of France; King Solomon and King Nebuchadezzar; Aaron and Pharaoh. 16. 14-17 THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE-DAME IN REIMS 1211-1428 (FRANCE) -finished under Philip the Fair -five master masons directed the work over a century. -Mary is featured in the central portal, because of the growing popularity of her cult. -Christ crowns her as queen of heaven in the central gable. -â€Å"the gallery of kinds is the only horizontal element of the facade. WEST FACADE -It depicts Visitation and Mary on the left and Elizabeth pregnant with St. John the Baptist on the right. -the figures are in contrapposto pose because their weight is shifted to one foot as they turn towards each other. -Villard highlighted an innovation that was the development of bar tracery, where thin stone bars called mullions are inserted into the wall to form a lacy framework for the stained glass. 16. 31-32 PULPIT 1260 (ITALY) -NCOLA PISANO Corinthian columns -elevated and are carved in design of animals -gothic trefoil arch and 6 sided pulpit enunciation angle of Gabriel announces that Mary is pregnant with Christ -classical and naturalistic style -New Testament Subjects -Each panel narrates several continuous scenes such as : Annunciation, Nativity and Adoration of the Shepherds. 16. 33 NATIVITY 1302-1310 (PISA) -GIOVANNI PISANO deeply carved setting -Mary gazing at her baby as the midwife below her prepares the bath for the child. -Sheep, shepherds and ange ls spiral up towards the trees to the right -it is as dynamic as Nicola’s is static. Fourth Century Art in Europe 17. 5 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1280 (FLORENCE) -CIMABUE -tempera and gold on wood panel the Virgin and Child are surrounded by angels and places a row of Hebrew prophets below them. -Mary is depicted in hierarchy and holds Jesus on her lap. she looks at the viewer while gesturing at her son. -her throne is bronze with enamels and gems inset and provides framework for the figures. He uses thin gold lines to highlight the drapery of the figures to give them a sense of divinity. -he gives naturalistic warmth and dimension to his human figures. 17. 6 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED 1305-1310 (FLORENCE) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE tempera and gold on wood panel -painted for the church of Ognissanti figures are in a symmetrical composition and use the hierarchy scale like Cimabue’s Virgin and Child Enthroned. -Mary takes up a large amount of space and overwhelms her Gothic throne. -the halos also overlap the faces of the figures in the background -she holds her child’s leg instead of pointing to him. -he has created a better sense of dimension compared to Cimabue’s -the angels are foreshortened and project towards us. 17. 7 SCROVEGNI (ARENA) CHAPEL 1305-1306 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -he covered the entrance wall with The Last Judgment and the sanctuary wall with 3 scenes from the life of Christ. The Annunciation spreads over two painted architectural frameworks on either side of the opening to the sanctuary. -below and to the left of this is the scene of Judas getting payment for betraying Jesus and to the right the scene of Visitation where Mary pregnant with God is with Elisabeth who is pregnant with John the Baptist. -Colors complement each other, which is supposed to make the viewers relate them to each other -there is a grisaille which is a painting done in all grays -paint replicated marble and carved medallions on verti cal bands -portrait disks float like glowing moons in the blue sky. 17. MARRIAGE AT CANA, RAISING OF LAZARUS, LAMENTATION AND RESURRECTION/NOLI ME TANGERE 1305-06 (PADUA) -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco -scene from Christ’s life -top left Jesus performs his first miracle, at the wedding feast at Cana turning water to wine and the wine-steward sips it. -to the right is the Raising of Lazarus where figures twist in space using gestures they react to the drama by pleading for the help of Jesus. Jesus’ eyes are locked on Lazarus. -on the lower left register is Jesus’s followers grieving over his dead body in a circle of grief. Mary holds her dead son and John flings his arms back in despair and hunches over the corps. 7. 9 KISS OF JUDAS SCROVEGNI (ARENA) ITALY 1305-06 -GIOTTO DI BONDONE -fresco the mark of betrayal that shows the first step to Crucifixion for Jesus. -they are slightly off-center in the foreground. -Judas wears the same outfit as in the scene of payment for his betrayal and looks as though he completely swallows Christ’s body. -faces glare from all directions -Jesus is calm unlike the figures in the rest of the scene. -Peter is seen lunging forward to cut off the ear of a member of the arresting retinue. -The scenes of cloth compress the chaos into the picture as if to protect the viewer.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Cabaza Del Vaca essays

Cabaza Del Vaca essays Cabeza de Vaca learned to communicate with the Spaniards and also learned to believe in some of their Christian values, including faith healing. The Spaniards learned to live within the culture of the indigenous people, learning to eat those things that were eaten by the local Indians, practice witchcraft, healing, and other rituals. Similar to the indigenous people, Cabeza de Vaca and his followers adapted the style of dress worn by those with whom they were enslaved and later befriended. Cabeza de Vaca no longer sought to find the wealth of the new land but became sympathetic to the Indians, and wanted them to remain free. Cabeza de Vaca did not want the Indians to be captured by other Spanish soldiers. In my opinion, the reason that the Spaniards said, "we must tell lies" was two fold. When they inspected the dying man who was shot with a Spanish musket ball in the last village that was pillaged, looted, and then burned by the Spanish soldiers, Cabeza de Vaca and the others were aware that the Spaniards would not be far away. In an effort to prevent many of the indigenous people being captured and enslaved, Cabeza de Vaca and the others knew the only way the Indian followers would go in a different direction was to pretend that he was cursed with death everywhere that he went. Because the Indians were very superstitious, Cabeza de Vaca knew that he could use this as an excuse to leave the nomadic group he was traveling with without raising much suspicion among the Indians. The Indians believing that Cabeza de Vaca was cursed continued their travels without him. The other men in his exploration party later met up with him later. The second reason that Cabeza de Vaca and his e xpedition followers determined that they must lie was that if they professed to the practices of the rituals of healing and raising people from the dead as prescribed by the Indians through witchcraft or medicine man healing, the Spaniards knew the...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Critical Thinking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 10

Critical Thinking - Essay Example The article â€Å"Yes: It Provides Protection for Children,† written by Steve Francis and Gayle Francis, assert that teenagers cannot make this abortion decision on their own, and so they need their parents or adults to help them get through this crisis. Steve Francis and Gayle Francis argue that Proposition 4 will be good for concerned teenagers, parents, and society in general. It will be good for teenagers, because they can access the emotional and social support that their parents or adult family members can give them. Francis and Francis assert that during these sensitive times, girls need their parents to help them cope with physical and psychological trauma of abortion. Furthermore, they emphasize that this proposition will protect girls from male predators, who will force them to do an abortion. Parents will also benefit from this proposition, because they can ensure that their children receive quality health care, including post-operation health care services. Francis and Francis argue, too, that states with parental involvement laws have lower percentages of teen pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted infections than states without these laws. Finally, they underline that this proposition is good for society, beca use it is aligned to existing laws that protect the youth from sexual predators and it can ensure that the youth will not have to make this hard decision on their own. The strength of this article is that it wants to ensure that teenagers get enough social support when making life-changing decisions. It suggests sincere belief in the paternal role of the state in protecting the welfare of the youth. Their article, however, possesses several fallacies, specifically overgeneralization, statement of opinion as facts, and weak inductive argument. Francis and Francis give an example of a 13-year-old girl from the San Francisco Bay Area. A 39-year-old man got her pregnant and brought her to a clinic for an abortion. A few days after, the